Wednesday, August 3, 2011


Form 2

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Jumpa kamu di kelas pengenalan 2011 nanti!

Chap 1: World through our senses
Focus on labelling of the 5 important organs,refraction(focus on movement of light from denser to less denser and vice versa)(Refer to intensive class concept maps)
-remember if light move from less denser to denser it refracts away from normal line
-remember if light move from denser to less denser it refracts towards the normal line
-Eye: first you focus on characteristics of the eye then the defects of eye i.e -
i )short sightedness:can see near only,image short,eyeball too long,improve using concave lense(Refer to intensive class concept maps)
ii)lont sightedness:can see far only,image long,eyeball too short,improve using convex lense(Refer to intensive class concept maps)
-know difference between stereoscopic/monocular vision
-Ear: focus on characteristic of sound and then how echo can be reduced(Refer to intensive class concept maps)
-Plants stimuli: you focus on the types of stimuli i.e phototropism,geotropism,hydrotropism,thigmotropism and nastic movement(Refer to intensive class concept maps)

Chap 2: Nutrition
Focus on functions of each of the 7 classes of food,food pyramid's arrangement(be prepared to draw if asked),
-First you focus on importance of food to human(know at least 4)
-As for Vitamins and minerals you need to know all (sorry no shortcut here)-the types,sources,functions and deficiency diseases.....(Refer to intensive class concept maps)
-Secondly the food test ,REMEMBER!! GB(Glucose-Benedict's) and PM(Protein-Millon's)
-Factors determined a persons diet(know all 6 of them)(Refer to intensive class concept maps)
-also learn how to calculate Calorific value( 1 Calorie(Cal) = 4.2 joules(j)
-Finally the routes/path food follow from the mouth till anus,along the way you should focus where starch/protein/fats are digested and finally water are reabsorbed(in big intestine),what is enzymes called amylase,pepsin,renin,lipase functions:remember this
Starch - amylase - maltose - glucose
Proteins - protease - peptides/peptones - protease - amino acids
Fats - lipase - fatty acids & glycerol
(Refer to intensive class concept maps)

Chap 3: Biodiversity
Focus on the different of biodiversity:begins by learning focusing on the basic difference between vertebrates and invertebrates(REMEMBER that few Mammals special exclusive characteristics such as platypus-lay eggs,whales/dolphins-live in water,procupine-have thorns and bats-can fly(Refer to intensive class concept maps)
-VERTEBRATES:This is a chapter where they may ask you abou a creatures with given characteristics,they u are asked either to identify another species in the list or determined which animals/pairs of animals are grouped correctly
-INVERTEBRATES:This part you focus on the 2 types of invertebrates i.e with jointed legs and without jointed legs
With jointed legs(3 pairs-fly/cricket,4 pairs-scorpion/spider,more than 4 pairs-centipede/prawn)(Refer to intensive class concept maps)
Without jointed legs(worm like-earthworm/flatworm,not worm like-jelly fish/starfish/snail(Refer to intensive class notes)
-PLANTS: As for plants you read up about characteristics of monocotyledon and dicotyledon seed plants,dont forget to compare with non flowering plants too i.e with seeds-conifers and without seeds -ferns/mosses/algae(Refer to intensive class notes)
-NOTE: every year they love to ask you about question about local biodiversity plans/rules-set such as penalty/scenario for you to think(last year about timber logging) this year focus on current issue such as floods,release of hazards smokes to air,visit Malaysia-eco tourism,setting up national park/protection of our mangrove plants,our wetlands,mining activities,constructions,industrial,agricultural and rubbish disposal!!!!!(Refer to intensive class notes)

Chap 4: Interdependence of living organisms and the environment
Focus the relationship that exist i.e prey-predator,3 types of symbiosis and competition
-firstly pay attention to diagram about species,population,communities and its relationship with the environment(they may give u a diagram marked with X/Y/Z or forest or pond)
-compare difference between the relationship of prey-predator,symbiosis(paratism/mutualism/commensalism) and finally competition-get an example for each of these(Refer to intensive class notes)
-compare what are the advantages and disadvantages in biological control
-able to know food chain in a food web(Refer to intensive class notes)
-search for the experiment in bell jar,remember sodium hydroxide absorb Co2 while potassium bicarbonate release Co2 and the experiment to test starch in plants(Refer to intensive class notes)
-this chapter has a continuity from chapter 3 in reducing greehouse effect on earth ,by the process of photosynthesis when we grow plants it helps to reduce the Co2 in the atmosphere
-finally the effort to conserve and preserve done in Malaysia (check Chap 3 above)(Refer to intensive class notes)

Chap 5: Water & Solution
Focus on factors of evaporation and factors that increases solubility
In this chapter you focus on composition on water(H2O) and the experiment electrolysis(including the gases collected)(Ingat Cikgu Halia Seperti Orang Asli)
-difference between evaporation and boiling(Refer to intensive class notes)
-how to get a dilute/concentrated/saturated solution and rate of dissolving a solute
-you do some read up about difference between acid and alkali and the experiments
-FOCUS ON METHOD ON WATER PURIFICATION(filtration/boiling/chlorination/UV light/distillation(Refer to intensive class notes)
-finally you focus on water treatment plant-there is a new term called Aeration(removing unpleasant odour/taste in water)
-this year water pollution is a hot topic in Malaysia-find out the cause of it?????????
(Refer to intensive class notes)

Chap 6: Air Pressure
Definition of air pressure and the factor causes it to increase
-Always remember pressure always move from high to low pressure area(Refer to intensive class notes)
-factor affecting pressure(volume of container decrease pressure increase,temperature increase pressure increase)(Refer to intensive class notes)
-they may ask you about drinking straw,dropper,spraying pump,siphon,syringe,rubber sucker,bunsen burner, filter pump,clearing block pipe and milk in tin cans(Refer to intensive class notes)

Chap 7: Dynamics
Focus on how dynamic affects our daily lifes.....
-firstly remember there are 8 types of force(Refer to intensive class notes)
-force change shape,size,speed,direction and stop a moving object
-focus on frictional force,it moves in opposite direction and has a magnitude(determined by types of surface-rough friction increase and weight increase friction increase)
-advantages of friction:stop/move and object,grip tight,produce music,climb(Refer to intensive class notes)
- disadvantages of it:make noise,wear and tear,waste energy,produce unnecessary heat(Refer to intensive class notes)
-how to reduce friction:using roller,grease,wheels,ball bearings,aerodynamic/streamlined shape in ships/trains/planes(Refer to intensive class notes)

Work = Force(N) x Distance(m)(focus on people carrying object over a distance such as weight lifter/carrying bag/box up a stairs,lowering pail down(Refer to intensive class notes)

Power = Work ÷ Time(Refer to intensive class notes)

Chap 8: Support & Movement
Focus on factors causes support and movement i.e the difference between endoskeleton and exoskeleton(Refer to intensive class notes)
-endoskeleton made of bone/cartilage,exoskeleton made of chitin/calcium carbonate
-know how plants supports itself i.e woody plants-compact tissue-durian tree,herbaceous plants/non woody-depend of water turgidity-banana/yam,aquatic plants-have air sacs in the stems-water hyacinth(Refer to intensive class notes)
-then you move to types of roots:
i )Woody plants i.e buttress-rain tree/angsana,prop roots-mangrove
ii )Non woody i.e thorns/prickles-rose,tendirls-cucumber,clasping roots-pepper plant,aerial roots-maize
-malfunction of human supports system: they use walking stick,crutches,walking frame
-beached whales(ikan paus)-inability to roll itself back to the sea cause its bones to small to support its weight (Refer to intensive class concept maps)

Chap 9: Stability
Focus on factor causes stability such as height and area of base
-Remember two things centre of gravity(COG) and base area(BA)(Refer to intensive class notes)
-to be stable COG must be low and BA must be wide (Refer to intensive class notes)
-to find COG the method using a string called Plumb line is used(Refer to intensive class notes)
-they may give you an object/toys/human skeletal system/furniture/lab apparatus/buildings/towers/diagram and ask you to determined which is stable ,so follow the guideline given above here(Refer to intensive class notes)

Chap 10: Simple Machine
First you focus on how to identify the difference between :
FIRST CLASS -fulcrum in centre e.g pliers,crowbar,scissors,see saw,hammer(Refer to intensive class notes)
SECOND CLASS-load in centre e.g wheelbarrow,nutcracker,bottle opener,paper cutter,can opener(Refer to intensive class notes)
THIRD CLASS -effort in centre e.g ice tongs,human arm,fishing rod,broom,golf club(same as broom)((Refer to intensive class notes)

-Then you focus on these formula Load x Distance of Load = Force x Distance of force
(Refer to intensive class notes)

note: refer to my classes notes.......intensive class CONCEPT MAP!!!!

Good luck to all of you! Chaiyok ! Chaiyok ! Chaiyok !

1 comment:

  1. Terima kasih cikgu Lee.. Advise cikgu sangat membantu..